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Pandora’s Botnet

Pandora’s Botnet

Cybersecurity is mentioned so often that it has become a cliché like climate change, with the other thing they have in common being a disagreement on what solutions are required, who is responsible for them and whether there is a responsibility in changing behaviour so as to minimize these risks. All of these difficult questions are left unanswered not just by the conceptual breadth and diversity of the issue at hand, but also by the ease with which dilettantes and people with agendas can spot facile solutions that obviate the need for difficult questions and answers. More

No. 7-8, Sep.-Dec. 2017 2017


The Grand (Binary) Chessboard: Security, Geopolitics and Geoeconomics in the Cyber-era

The Grand (Binary) Chessboard: Security, Geopolitics and Geoeconomics in the Cyber-era

For each age that we think to define, there are words that describe the aspects or characteristics that are thought to define it best. The mid-twentieth century was known as the ‘Atomic Age’, when the results of research into nuclear physics were brought to the forefront with the detonation of nuclear bombs. Shortly thereafter, it was succeeded by the Space Age, with the drive to explore outer space and the competition between the world’s superpowers to develop technology to that end. Somewhere from the 1970s, the Information Age is believed to have begun, sprung by the Digital Revolution, with information technology playing an increasingly greater role in human affairs on an ever-growing number of levels: the economy, society, culture, language and politics. Thus, geographic distance became less and less relevant in defining human interaction, and physical contact was no longer an imperative for relations between people. More

No. 7-8, Sep.-Dec. 2017 2017


Regulations Rather than Awareness Drive IT Security Efforts

Regulations Rather than Awareness Drive IT Security Efforts

According to a joint PwC Romania and Microsoft Romania survey launched today, “Security in the Digital World”, investments in cybersecurity are mostly driven by regulatory requirements instead of the organizations awareness of the actual and ongoing IT security threats. On the plus side, companies acting in highly regulated sectors such as the financial industry, for example, are usually better prepared to tackle cyber threats. More

No. 7-8, Sep.-Dec. 2017 2017


Cyber Conflict and International Law

Cyber Conflict and International Law

This article provides a brief overview of the international principles and standards applicable to cyber conflict. The main assumption is that globalization and technological development have changed the international order. These changes affect the nation states and principles and standards established to regulate their relations. The existing international law has limited applicability to regulate potential cyber conflict. Therefore, the International Community must take further steps to prevent these challenges.  More

No. 7-8, Sep.-Dec. 2017 2017


Terrorist Influence on Children in Cyberspace

Terrorist Influence on Children in Cyberspace

Terrorist groups are using cyberspace to propagandize ideological, political and religious concepts, for mutual communication and organization of activities, for planning attacks in the real world and for financing. Social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Telegrams have contributed to radicalization and recruitment, primarily of children and young people who accept the principles of terrorists and join their ranks. Modern ways of communication have enabled terrorists to successfully increase membership and their ranks without direct, physical contact. More

No. 7-8, Sep.-Dec. 2017 2017


European Construction. Intellectual Project vs. Emergence

European Construction. Intellectual Project vs. Emergence

Society is a component element of Popper’s third world, i.e., of the world formed by objectivizing the content of thoughts (ideas, theories, desirability, etc.), objectivation achieved mostly by social action. This means that the social “objects” (therefore the economic “objects” too) appear, become and disappear only by social action. One may say that the social ontology is, simply, the effect of the social praxeology, that society is a political product (supra-individual cause and effect). Therefore, the social construction is a teleological construction obtained by completing the universal causes (material, efficient, formal) with the final cause (purpose). More

No. 5-6, May.-Aug. 2017 2017


The Worrisome EU Defense Union

The Worrisome EU Defense Union

In 2016, the EU has put forward a new vision and a new plan for a “Defense Union”. The proposals are supported mainly by France and Germany – Europe’s most notable military powers. France and Germany are also the two major continental contributors to NATO’s defense system. Presently, both of these European states look for a more substantial “European defense” structure by and for Europeans, but certainly not excluding NATO. While the French loudly claim that the current EU proposal was initially a French one, the German side has more interest in its success. The team of France and Germany is mainly an alliance of common pragmatic interests rather than of a common political will. Germany’s defense industry is in a better situation while the French one is hindered by the country’s stagnating economy (i.e.: the French deficit issue due to EU’s macroeconomic governance requirements). More

No. 5-6, May.-Aug. 2017 2017


The Risks of the Belt and Road Initiative in the Construction of the Eurasian Economic Corridor

The Risks of the Belt and Road Initiative in the Construction of the Eurasian Economic Corridor

The EU/European market has always been fundamental to the development of economy and trade of China. The EU is the No. 1 trading partner of China. With regards to GDP, the EU is the largest economy in the world with the US and China ranking as the second and third largest economies respectively. Needless to say, the cooperation between the EU and China is of great significance to the economic development of China. For this reason, China has committed to pushing forward the construction of the Eurasian Economic Corridor, so as to facilitate the bilateral trade between the two sides. More

No. 4, Mar.-Apr. 2017 2017


Cooperation Rationale for China and the CEE Countries

Cooperation Rationale for China and the CEE Countries

When the BRI (Belt and Road Initiative) was first introduced to the world, it was both hailed and doubted. One common misunderstanding regarding the BRI is whether it can transcend individual infrastructure construction and realize true regional economic integration, which would surely help China manage its overcapacity problem and its structural economic transition. However, we should go further and ask another question – what are the infrastructures for? More

No. 4, Mar.-Apr. 2017 2017


The New Silk Road: Hope in Times of Imminent Danger

The New Silk Road: Hope in Times of Imminent Danger

Dark storm clouds are gathering on the horizon. The financial crisis is back, new tensions between the USA and Russia lie ahead – with heavy implications for Europe – as result of sanctions just established by the American Congress, not the President. On the other hand, we have an inkling of a new and more just world order in the making by China’s New Silk Road Initiative, formerly known as the One Belt, One Road and commonly named the Belt and Road Initiative. If mankind is to survive, we have to bury the old paradigm of geopolitics, that brought us two World Wars and threatens us today with the deadly prospect of a final one – the thermonuclear annihilation of civilization.  More

No. 4, Mar.-Apr. 2017 2017


The Other Side of the (Chinese) Wall

The Other Side of the (Chinese) Wall

For someone who has been born in the Western world it is quite a challenge to accept or at least to imagine that world is much more diverse, old and complex than the European civilization. Even today, in the age of globalization and Internet, very few Europeans know that Europe represents just about 17% of the world gross product and only a tiny 7% of the world population. More

No. 4, Mar.-Apr. 2017 2017


Comments on the New Chinese Initiatives and Their Potential Impact on the Sino-Romanian Relations

Comments on the New Chinese Initiatives and Their Potential Impact on the Sino-Romanian Relations

Since 2012, the new Chinese administration has begun to model the Chinese “going-out strategy” under the characteristics of self-assurance, confidence, leadership and global networking. Initially, the Belt and Road initiative (BRI), announced in autumn 2013 by President Xi Jinping, might have appeared as utopian in the intention of reactivating and extending the Silk Road by land and sea beyond Asia-Pacific, towards Europe, Africa and America. The long-term vision of the BRI is underscored by its first implementation phase, which should be finished until 2049, the year of the 100th anniversary of the People’s Republic of China. More

No. 4, Mar.-Apr. 2017 2017


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OEconomica No. 1, 2016